Journal Menu
Last Edition



Hammad T. Elmetwally1

Mostafa A. Abdelhafiz1

M. N. El-Sheikh1

Mahmoud E. Abdullah1

1Mechanical Department, Faculty of Technology and Education, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt

Received: 8 March 2023
Revised: 3 May 2023
Accepted: 6 June 2023
Published: 30 June 2023


Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be a solid-state welding technique that is suitable well for joining copper and aluminium sheets. The current experimental study focused on the influence of pin geometry on the micro-structural and mechanical characteristics of such joints. An aluminium sheet was welded to a copper sheet at a constant rotational speed of 1280 rpm and a traverse speed of 16 mm/min. The welding tool was made from W302 steel with four different pin profiles: straight cylindrical, tapered, triangular, and squared. When the squared pin was utilized, the optimum joint was produced as the specimen prepared from this joint had a defect- free structure and a tensile strength of 107.2 MPa (80% of the aluminium strength). On the other hand, the pin with a triangular profile was utilized to determine the minimum characteristics, and the specimens’ structures revealed dislocations, separations, and cracking in copper particles inside the aluminium matrix. The microhardness trend is consistent across all specimens. Moreover, specimens welded using squared and cylindrical pin tools have the maximum hardness values obtained at the stir zone of the copper side. The inspection of fractured surfaces showed well mixing between aluminium and copper as well as ductile fracture when a squared pin tool was used while it showed a combination of ductile fracture and brittle fracture for the specimen welded with a triangular pin tool. Based on this study, the use of the squared pin tool gives the most favourable results compared with other pin profiles.


FSW, dissimilar joint, pin geometry, joint strength, microstructure, peak temperature, ductile-brittle fracture


[1] A. Heidarzadeh, S. Mironov, R. Kaibyshev, G. Çam, A. Simar, A. Gerlich, F. Khodabakhshi, A. Mostafaei, D.P. Field, J.D. Robson, A. Deschamps, Friction stir welding/processing of metals and alloys: A comprehensive review on microstructural evolution. Progress in Materials Science, 117, 2021: 100752.
[2] S. Sirohi, S.M. Pandey, A. Świerczyńska, G. Rogalski, N. Kumar, M. Landowski, D. Fydrych, C. Pandey, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Combined GTAW and SMAW Dissimilar Welded Joints between Inconel 718 and 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel. Metals, 13(1), 2022: 14.
[3] M.M.Z. Ahmed, M.M.E. Seleman, D. Fydrych, G. Çam, Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum in the Aerospace Industry: The Current Progress and State-of-the-Art Review. Materials, 16(8), 2023: 2971.
[4] H.I. Khalaf, R. Al-Sabur, M. E. Abdullah, A. Kubit, H.A. Derazkola, Effects of Underwater Friction Stir Welding Heat Generation on Residual Stress of AA6068-T6 Aluminum Alloy. Materials, 15(6), 2022: 2223.
[5] V.P. Singh, S.K. Patel, B. Kuriachen, Mechanical and microstructural properties evolutions of various alloys welded through cooling assisted friction-stir welding: A review. Intermetallics, 133, 2021: 107122.
[6] G.K. Padhy, C.S. Wu, S. Gao, Friction stir based welding and processing technologies – processes, parameters, microstructures and applications: A review. Journal of Materials Science and Technology, 34(1), 2018: 1–38.
[7] V.P. Singh, S.K. Patel, A. Ranjan, B. Kuriachen, Recent research progress in solid state friction-stir welding of aluminium–magnesium alloys: a critical review. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 9(3), 2020: 6217– 6256.
[8] B. Singh, K.K. Saxena, P. Singhal, T.C. Joshi, Role of Various Tool Pin Profiles in Friction Stir Welding of AA2024 Alloys. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 30, 2021: 8606–8615.
[9] K. Gangwar, M. Ramulu, Friction stir welding of titanium alloys: A review. Materials & Design, 141, 2018: 230–255.
[10] T. Dursun, C. Soutis, Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys. Materials & Design (1980-2015), 56, 2014: 862–871.
[11] Q. Zhang, W. Gong, W. Liu, Microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar Al–Cu joints by friction stir welding. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 25(6), 2015:1779–1786.
[12] A. Esmaeili, M.K.B. Givi, H.R.Z. Rajani, A metallurgical and mechanical study on dissimilar Friction Stir welding of aluminum 1050 to brass (CuZn30). Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528(22-23), 2011: 7093–7102.
[13] K.P. Mehta, V.J. Badheka, A Review on Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of Copper to Aluminum: Process, Properties, and Variants. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 31(3), 2016: 233–254.
[14] S.D. Dhanesh Babu, P. Sevvel, R. Senthil Kumar, V. Vijayan, J. Subramani, Development of Thermo Mechanical Model for Prediction of Temperature Diffusion in Different FSW Tool Pin Geometries During Joining of AZ80A Mg Alloys. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 31, 2021: 3196–3212.
[15] S. Celik, R. Cakir, Effect of Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of the Al-Cu Butt Joint. Metals, 6(6), 2016: 133.
[16] V. Msomi, S. Mabuwa, Effect of material positioning on fatigue life of the friction stir processed dissimilar joints. Materials Research Express, 7, 2020: 106520.
[17] H. Kumar, R. Prasad, P. Kumar, Effect of tool pin eccentricity on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir processed copper. Vacuum, 185, 2021:110037.
[18] M. Zhai, C. Wu, H. Su, Influence of tool tilt angle on heat transfer and material flow in friction stir welding. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 59, 2020: 98–112.
[19] A. Ghiasvand, S.M. Noori, W. Suksatan, J. Tomków, S. Memon, H.A. Derazkola, Effect of Tool Positioning Factors on the Strength of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welded Joints of AA7075-T6 and AA6061-T6. Materials, 15(7), 2022: 2463.
[20] D. García-Navarro, J.C. Ortiz-Cuellar, J.S. Galindo-Valdés, J. Gómez-Casas, C.R. Muñiz- Valdez, N.A. Rodríguez-Rosales, Effects of the FSW Parameters on Microstructure and Electrical Properties in Al 6061-T6- Cu C11000 Plate Joints. Crystals, 11(1), 2020: 21.
[21] A. Ghiasvand, M. Kazemi, M.M. Jalilian, H.A. Rashid, Effects of tool offset, pin offset, and alloys position on maximum temperature in dissimilar FSW of AA6061 and AA5086. International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, 15, 2020: 6.
[22] D.O. Bokov, M.A. Jawad, W. Suksatan, M.E. Abdullah, A. Świerczyńska, D. Fydrych, H.A. Derazkola, Effect of Pin Shape on Thermal History of Aluminum-Steel Friction Stir Welded Joint: Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling and Validation. Materials, 14(24), 2021: 7883.
[23] H.T. Elmetwally, H.N. SaadAllah, M.S. Abd- Elhady, R.K. Abdel-Magied, Optimum combination of rotational and welding speeds for welding of Al/Cu-butt joint by friction stir welding. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 110, 2020: 163–175.
[24] S. Chupradit, D.O. Bokov, W. Suksatan, M. Landowski, D. Fydrych, M.E. Abdullah, H.A. Derazkola, Pin Angle Thermal Effects on Friction Stir Welding of AA5058 Aluminum Alloy: CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation. Materials, 14(24), 2021: 7565.
[25] H.I. Khalaf, R. Al-Sabur, M. Demiral, J. Tomków, J. Łabanowski, M.E. Abdullah, H.A. Derazkola, The Effects of Pin Profile on HDPE Thermomechanical Phenomena during FSW. Polymers, 14(21), 2022: 4632.
[26] A.S. Bahedh, A. Mishra, R. Al-Sabur, A.K. Jassim, Machine learning algorithms for prediction of penetration depth and geometrical analysis of weld in friction stir spot welding process. Metallurgical Research and Technology, 119(3), 2022: 305.
[27] G. Fan, J. Tomków, M.E. Abdullah, H.A. Derazkola, Investigation on polypropylene friction stir joint: effects of tool tilt angle on heat flux, material flow and defect formation. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 23, 2023: 715–729.
[28] K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, Influences of tool pin profile and welding speed on the formation of friction stir processing zone in AA2219 aluminium alloy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 200 (1-3), 2008: 163–175.
[29] N. Sharma, A.N. Siddiquee, Z.A. Khan, M.T. Mohammed, Material stirring during FSW of Al–Cu: Effect of pin profile. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 33(7), 2018: 786–794.
[30] K. Elangovan, V. Balasubramanian, M. Valliappan, Effect of Tool Pin Profile and Tool Rotational Speed on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded AA6061 Aluminium Alloy. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, 23(3), 2008: 251–260.
[31] H. Khodaverdizadeh, A. Heidarzadeh, T. Saeid, Effect of tool pin profile on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded pure copper joints. Materials & Design, 45, 2013: 265–270.
[32] R. Khajeh, H.R. Jafarian, S.H. Seyedein, R. Jabraeili, A.R. Eivani, N. Park, Y. Kim, A. Heidarzadeh, Microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of dissimilar friction stir welded 2024 aluminum alloy and copper joints. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 14, 2021: 1945–1957.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0)

Volume 8
Number 4
December 2023

Last Edition

Volume 8
Number 2

How to Cite

H.T. Elmetwally, M.A. Abdelhafiz, M.N. El-Sheikh, M E. Abdullah, Effect of Friction Stir-Welding Tool Pin Geometry on the Characteristics of Al-Cu Joints. Applied Engineering Letters, 8(2), 2023: 60–69.

More Citation Formats

Elmetwally, H. T., Abdelhafiz, M. A., El-Sheikh, M. N., & Abdullah, M. E. (2023). Effect of Friction Stir-Welding Tool Pin Geometry on the Characteristics of Al-Cu Joints. Applied Engineering Letters, 8(2), 60–69.

Elmetwally, Hammad T., et al. “Effect of Friction Stir-Welding Tool Pin Geometry on the Characteristics of Al-Cu Joints.“ Applied Engineering Letters, vol. 8, no. 2, 2023, pp. 60–69,

Elmetwally, Hammad T, Mostafa A Abdelhafiz, M N El-Sheikh, and Mahmoud E Abdullah. 2023. “Effect of Friction Stir-Welding Tool Pin Geometry on the Characteristics of Al-Cu Joints.” Applied Engineering Letters 8 (2): 60–69.

Elmetwally, H.T., Abdelhafiz, M.A., El-Sheikh, M.N. and Abdullah, M.E. (2023). Effect of Friction Stir-Welding Tool Pin Geometry on the Characteristics of Al-Cu Joints. Applied Engineering Letters, 8(2), pp.60–69. doi: 10.18485/aeletters.2023.8.2.3.